Joey Defrancesco

Joey_DefrancescoJoey Defrancesco is perhaps the greatest living disciple of the jazz organ. Having released over 30 albums, Joey D has played with legends like Jimmy Smith and Miles Davis. Perhaps the most amazing part of his story is how young he was when he started his journey. In this conversation we learn how he mastered Jimmy Smith’s classic “The Sermon” verbatim at age 4, led a band with Hank Mobley and Sonny Stitt at age 10, and joined Miles Davis’ group before he was old enough to vote.

Miles Davis – 1948 & 1949

charlie-parker-miles-davis-nyc-1947-wiliam-gottlieb-photo-9By late 1947 trumpet player Miles Davis was ready to leave the Charlie Parker Quintet and strike out on his own. His playing had improved immensely and he was no longer in the shadow of Dizzy Gillespie and Fats Navarro. Miles was looking for an altogether different approach to modern jazz that utilized more space, color, and texture balanced with modern arrangements.

Miles Davis 1948-1949 - Episode 1

The recordings from this period are probably the least listened to, but are incredibly rich and poignant. His group from this period, often referred to as the Nonet or Roost Band, was groundbreaking in many respects---Miles surrounded himself with creative and forward thinking musicians. The recordings on this podcast are all live air checks from the Royal Roost Jazz Club in New York. These recordings pre-date the Birth of the Cool recordings made for Capitol Records in 1949 and 1950.
Be BopDizzy Gillespie All-Stars1945
AnthropologyFats Navarro/Tadd Dameron1947
Budo (Hallucinations)Miles Davis NonetLive Roost Sessions1948
Move #1Miles Davis NonetLive Roost Sessions1948
Move #2Miles Davis NonetLive Roost Sessions1948
Half NelsonMiles Davis QuintetLive Roost Sessions1948
52nd Street ThemeMiles Davis QuintetLive Roost Sessions1948

Miles Davis 1948-1949 - Episode 2

By 1949 Miles’ trumpet playing had reached new heights. His abilities could be compared to those of the other famous bop trumpeters like Howie McGee, Dizzy Gillespie, and Fats Navarro. In addition to leading the famous Nonet, Miles spent quite a bit of time collaborating with pianist, composer, and arranger Tadd Dameron in 1949. Miles travelled to Paris in May 1949 with Tadd and played brilliantly on the live recordings from the Salle Pleyel. These are Miles’ finest recordings in the bop style. After their return from Paris both Tadd and Miles were disillusioned about the lack of respect for jazz in the states after the overwhelming reception they had received in Europe.
Composition ArtistAlbumYear 
Wah HooMiles Davis & Tadd DameronQuintet in Paris1949
Overtime (long version)Miles Daviswith the Metronome All-Stars1949
FocusMiles Davis with Tadd Dameron's Big Ten1949
Webb’s DelightMiles Davis with Tadd Dameron's Big Ten1949
Good BaitMiles Davis & Tadd DameronQuintet in Paris1949
Don’t Blame MeMiles Davis & Tadd DameronQuintet in Paris1949
All the Things You AreMiles Davis & Tadd DameronQuintet in Paris1949
OrnithologyMiles Davis & Tadd DameronQuintet in Paris1949

Ahmad Jamal

Jamal-Argo-SessionsAhmad Jamal (born 1930) was one of the important jazz pianists and trio leaders of the 1950’s and 1960’s. Originally from Pittsburgh, PA this “underexposed” musician had a unique approach to improvisation, form, and leading a jazz trio. He was one of the most iconic figures of the last 60 years. His use of space and silence, tension and release, and dynamics were as unique as was the manner in which he utilized his trio in “orchestral” terms.

Ahmad Jamal - Episode 1

This podcast will highlight some of the important figures that influenced Ahmad’s approach to jazz including Art Tatum, Errol Garner, and Nat Cole. Included is one selection from his important 1955 recording, Chamber Music of the New Jazz featuring Ray Crosby on guitar and Israel Crosby on bass, and one from his famous Live at the Spotlight session.
Art TatumFlying HomeLive 1953-19551954
Errol GarnerLaura (Solo Piano)Rosetta Volume 21945
Nat ColeLester Leaps InJ.A.T.P. - The First Concert1944
Count BasieBasie's BoogieLive in Switzerland1959
Ahamad JamalNew RhumbaChambers of the New Jazz1955
Ahmad JamalAutumn LeavesLive at the Spotlight Club1958

Ahmad Jamal - Episode 2

In the mid 1950’s through the early 1960’s Ahmad Jamal had one of the most unique and innovative trios on the jazz scene. The trio in 1955 featured piano, bass and guitar—soon the guitarist would be replaced by number of different drummers until he hired drummer Vernell Fournier from New Orleans. Ahmad’s greatest recordings from this period were all recorded live during long-standing playing engagements in Chicago, Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and other major cities. This podcast will feature some of the most important recordings that illustrate the group’s unique approach to arrangement, the use of silence and space, group interplay, dynamics, and the variety of textures he was able to achieve.
Ahmad JamalPoincianaLive at the Pershing Lounge1955
Ahmad JamalDarn That DreamLive at the Blackhawk1962
Ahmad JamalLet's Fall in LoveLive at the Spotlight1958
Ahmad JamalBut Not for MeLIve at the Pershing Lounge1958

Ahmad Jamal - Episode 3

The relationship between Ahmad Jamal, Miles Davis, and Gil Evans is well documented in recordings, print, and interviews. Miles often remarked on how much he admired the Ahmad Jamal Trio and Ahmad’s economy and use of space. On this podcast I will examine the musical relationship between some of Jamal’s important recordings and the subsequent recordings by Miles Davis, and the Gil Evans and Miles Davis famous collaboration, Miles Ahead (Miles +19).
Ahmad JamalA Gal in CalicoLive at the Spotlight Club1958
Ahmad JamalAhmad’s BluesLive at the Spotlight Club1958
Miles DavisAhmad’s BluesWorking With the Miles Davis Quintet1956
Ahmad JamalAutumn LeavesLive at the Spotlight Club1958
Cannonball AdderleyAutumn LeavesSomethin’ Else1958
AhmadNew RhumbaChamber Music of the New Jazz1955
Miles DavisNew RhumbaMiles Ahead (Miles +19)1957
Ahmad JamalI Don’t Wanna Be KissedChamber Music of the New Jazz1955
Miles DavisI Don’t Wanna Be KissedMiles Ahead (Miles +19)1957
Ahmad JamalOn Green Dolphin StreetCount’em 881956
Miles DavisOn Green Dolphin StreetThe ‘58 Sessions1958
Ahmad JamalPavanneLive at the Spotlight Club1958
John ColtraneImpressionsImpressions: The John Coltrane Group1961
Ahmad JamalSurrey with the Fringe on TopLive at the Pershing Lounge1958

Bill Evans Trio

Evans 1Bill Evans’ influences include Bud Powell, Lennie Tristano, and European keyboard music. Bill’s first important work was with band leader George Russell. Russell was one of the most forward thinking musicians of the 1940’s and 1950’s who was always looking for new modes of expression in jazz. Russell started thinking about improvising on modes 10 years before Miles Davis’s album Kind of Blue. Evans was also thinking about modal music before he joined Miles Davis in 1958—it’s probable that he and George Russell (Gil Evans, too) had discussed it. In hindsight the track “Peace Piece” from the 1958 album Everybody Digs Bill Evans is a major turning point in modern jazz. It does not really fit the mood the album even though he includes some other reflective unaccompanied ballads; “Peace Piece” bears little or no similarity to the other tracks— you be the judge. Bill Evans is probably best known for the albums recorded with bassist Scott LaFaro and drummer Paul Motian between late 1959 and 1961. The playing on those trio albums helped re-define modern jazz rhythm section playing.

DisplacementBill EvansNew Conceptions in Jazz1956
MinorityBill EvansEverybody Digs Bill Evans1958
Peace PieceBill EvansEverybody Digs Bill Evans1958
Flamenco SketchesMiles Davis Kind of Blue1959
Autumn LeavesBill EvansPortrait in Jazz1959
Waltz for DebbyBill EvansVanguard Sessions1961
Some Other TimeBill EvansEverybody Digs Bill Evans1958

JJ Johnson

jjjohnson 2Arguably the greatest bebop/hard bop trombonist post 1945, J.J. Johnson’s work defied both musicians’ and the public’s perception that the slide trombone could not keep up in modern jazz (bebop). Gifted as a composer and arranger Johnson had a long career as both a performer, bandleader, and composer.

JJ Johnson - Episode 1

On this show I play recordings of 4 important trombonists that influenced him as well as some of Johnson’s earliest recordings.
A Night in TunisiaJJ and Kai1956
I'm Getting SentimentalTommy Dorsey Orchestracirca 1936
LoverJack Teagarden (air check) w/Louis Armstrongcirca 1950
My Gal SalFred Beckett---Harlan Leonard Rockets1940
Fan ItBill Harris/Woody Herman1946
Lester LeapsNorman Granz Jazz at the Philharmonic1944
I Mean YouColeman Hawkins Esquire All-Stars1946

JJ Johnson - Episode 2

By the late 1940’s J.J. was the preeminent trombonist in modern jazz. He recorded numerous times with his own group and a variety of others, including Charlie Parker and Miles Davis’s Nonet (Royal Roost Band). He also began to compose original material for his recordings.
How Deep is the OceanCharlie ParkerDial Sessions1947
Jay JayJ.J. JohnsonJazz Quintets1948
BoneologyJ.J. JohnsonJazz Quintets1948
DeceptionMiles DavisBirth of the Cool1949
TurnpikeJ.J. JohnsonThe Eminent JJ Johnson v11953
Walkin'Miles Davis All StarsWalkin'1954

JJ Johnson - Episode 3

The recordings from this podcast comprise some of his some of his finest work from 1954 through 1957. In 1954 Johnson formed a group with trombonist Kai Winding: the "Jay and Kai Quintet." The trombone styles and personalities of the two musicians, although very different, blended so well that the group was a huge success both musically and commercially.
It's All Right With MeJ.J. Johnson/Kai WindingJay and Kai1954
LamentJ.J. Johnson/Kai WindingJay and Kai1954
Coffee PotJ.J. JohnsonThe Eminent JJ Johnson V. 21955
Old Devil MoonJ.J. JohnsonThe Eminent JJ Johnson V. 21955
Night In TunisiaJ.J. Johnson/Kai WindingJay & Kai+6/J.J. in Person1956
Billie’s BounceStan Getz & J.J.At The Opera House [Live]1957
Wail MarchSonny RollinsVol. 21957

JJ Johnson - Episode 4

J.J. Johnson was also an important composer who wrote a number of works in the late 1950s that fall into a category referred to as 3rd Stream. You can hear the influence of many 20th century orchestral composers blended with jazz in these recordings. They are often overlooked works, but are rich in color, harmony, texture, and improvisation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s J.J. tried to break into television and motion picture sound scoring and enjoyed moderate success.
Poem for BrassJ.J. JohnsonThe Birth of the 3rd Stream1956
El Camino RealJ.J. JohnsonThe Brass Orchestra1996
AquariusJ.J. JohnsonJ.J. Inc.1960

Paul Chambers

Chambers #1Oscar Pettiford is the bassist generally assumed to have picked up where Jimmy Blanton left off, with Ray Brown, Red Mitchell, Percy Heath and others following in his footsteps. Paul Chambers (1935-1969) was the star of the next generation of bassists who came of age in the mid 1950’s. Among other achievements, Chambers is the first jazz bassist to earn dual renown as an arco and pizzicato soloist. Born in Pittsburgh, he grew up in Detroit and took up the double bass around 1949. While he was studying at Cass Tech (1952 to 1955), he had opportunities to interact with Thad Jones and Barry Harris. His formal bass training started in 1952, when he began taking lessons with a bassist in the Detroit Symphony. By the time he left for New York at the invitation of Paul Quinichette, he was already greatly experienced.

Paul Chambers - Episode 1

From 1954 on through 1955, he gained significance touring with such musicians as Bennie Green, Paul Quinichette, George Wallington, J. J. Johnson and Kai Winding. In 1955 he joined the Miles Davis quintet, staying on with the group until 1963 and appearing on many classic albums, including Kind of Blue. One of Chambers' most noted performances was on that album's first cut, "So What," which opens with a brief duet featuring Chambers and pianist Bill Evans. He free-lanced frequently as a sideman for other important names in jazz throughout his career.
Sepia PanoramaJimmy Blanton1941
The ThemePaul Chambers/Miles DavisThe New Miles Davis Quintet1955
Tail of the FingersPaul ChambersThe Whims of Chambers1956
Dear Old StockholmPaul Chambers/Miles DavisRound About Midnight1956
You’re My EverythingPaul Chambers/Miles DavisRelaxing1956
C Jam BluesPaul Chamber/Red GarlandGroovy1957
I’m Confessin’Paul ChambersBass on Top1957

Paul Chambers - Episode 2

This podcast will continue with recordings of bassist Paul Chamber. Between 1957 and 1960 Chambers was involved in some of the most important recording sessions in jazz, including all of Miles Davis recordings, but also work with John Coltrane, Red Garland, Jackie McLean, Blue Mitchell, Lee Morgan, JJ Johnson, Sonny Rollins, Bud Powell, Art Pepper, Cannonball Adderley, and many others. These are some of Paul’s most memorable recordings that feature him in supporting and solo roles. His sound and bass lines are probably his most recognizable qualities. His improvisations feature horn-like lines; how could he not be influenced the great musicians he played with?
YesterdaysPaul ChambersBass on Top1957
Blue TrainPaul Chambers/John ColtraneBlue Train1957
The Very Thought of YouPaul Chambers/Red GarlandRed Garland’s Piano1957
Black OutPaul Chambers/Red GarlandCan’t See for Lookin’1958
I Got RhythmPaul Chambers/Cannonball AdderleyJust Friends1959
So WhatPaul Chambers/Miles DavisKind of Blue1959
Someday My PrincePaul Chambers/Miles DavisSomeday My Prince Will Come1961

Kind of Blue

KOB 4Kind of Blue is the biggest selling jazz recording ever released and Miles Davis’s most famous recording. It has influenced generations of not only jazz musicians, but performers in many of other musical genres including rock and soul music of the 1960’s.

Kind of Blue - Episode 1

The genesis of the concept for the album comes from Miles, but there were many important contributors (directly and indirectly) to the album including Bill Evans, Gil Evans, Ahmad Jamal, and George Russell. Bill Evans was probably the musician most important to soft pastel character of the recording. Many musicians in the 1950’s were interested in a modal approach to jazz improvisation; bebop, cool and hard bop were largely constructed from traditional harmony. Miles recording of composition of Milestones in 1958 was his first attempt to break away from compositions using traditional harmony.
So WhatMiles DavisKind of Blues1959
MilestonesMiles DavisMilestones1958

Kind of Blue - Episode 2

As I mentioned in the previous podcast all of the compositions on the Kind of Blue are unusual in that their architecture in unconventional, except for “Freddie Freeloader.” “Freddie” is the most conventional composition on the record--a 12-bar blues with a little unexpected twist in the last measure. “Flamenco Sketches” is the most interesting composition on the album; it consists 5 different tonal centers. It is interesting to hear how each musician utilizes the notes from the different scales.
Freddie FreeloaderMiles DavisKind of Blue1959
Peace PieceBill EvansEverybody Digs Bill Evans1958
Flamenco SketchesMiles DavisKind of Blues1959

Kind of Blue - Episode 3

Bill Evans’ contribution to the album, “Blue in Green,” is a short composition with manner twists and turns, but unlike the other pieces on the record is not modal. It does have that floating pastel-like character that reflects the ideal of the album. Miles’ harmon-muted trumpet is the perfect vehicle for interpreting this dreamy ballad.
Blue in GreenMiles DavisKind of Blue1959
Alone TogetherBill Evans/Chet BakerLyrical Trumpet of CB1958

Kind of Blue - Episode 4

“All Blues” and “Freddie Freeloader” bear the stamp of modality in that there are no bebop chord substitutions or any other characteristics that came to define 1950s jazz harmony. Their improvisational sound is not solely based on dominant chords as was common during that era, but by the sound of dorian scales. It is interesting to compare the improvisations of all the soloists to see how they each addressed these musical issues and challenges placed before them by Miles Davis. “All Blues” was originally conceived in 4/4 time, it was later changes to ¾ or 6/8 for the recording for that famous floating feeling. The last part of the blues utilizes altered dominant chords that give it a distinctive dissonance and then resolves in the last measure. I also play two live versions of “So What” from 1960 to see how a later interpretation differs from the original.
All BluesMiles DavisKind of Blue1959
So WhatMiles DavisLive in Stockholm1960
So WhatMiles DavisLive at Olympia Theatre1960
Cold Sweat Pt. 1James Brown1967

Cannonball Adderley

Adderley 1Cannonball Adderley (1928-1975) was one of the most distinctive alto saxophonists post Charlie Parker. Originally from Florida, he was a high school band director in Ft. Lauderdale before moving to New York in 1955 with his brother Nat. After sitting in with Oscar Pettiford’s band at the Cafe Bohemia in New York in the summer of 1955, the alto saxophonist became an instant sensation.

Cannonball Adderley - Episode 1

Adderley clearly had his own approach to the horn, which drew inspiration from Benny Carter as well as Charlie Parker. He quickly formed his first quintet, which featured his younger brother Nat Adderley on cornet. Within a year, Cannonball caught the attention of Miles Davis, who hired the alto saxophonist to play in his sextet from 1957 to 1959. He recorded a number of important albums with Davis, including Kind of Blue. The recordings from this podcast feature Adderley’s first important recordings as a bandleader.
Arriving SoonCannonball AdderlyQuintet Plus One1961
New Swing StreetBenny Carter1938
Blood CountJimmy Hodges/Duke EllingtonHis Mother Called Him Bill1967
Still Talking to YouCannonball AdderleySummer of '551955
Tribute to BrownieCannonball AdderleySophisticated Swing1957
Lover ManCannonball AdderleyCannonball Enroute1957
The Way You Look TonightCannonball AdderleySophisticated Swing1957
Wee DotCannonball AdderleyAt Newport1957

Cannonball Adderley - Episode 2

By 1958 Adderley was one of the most ubiquitous alto saxophonists on the jazz scene. He was performing with his own group and also a member of the Miles Davis Sextet. His recognizable sound and affinity for soul jazz made him very popular. All the recordings from this podcast draw attention to his full sound, ebullient musical personality, and blazing technique.
MinorityCannonball AdderleyPortrait of Cannonball1958
Autumn LeavesCannonball AdderleySomething Else1958
Limehouse BluesCannonball AdderleyCannonball in Chicago1959
JeannineCannonball AdderleyJazz in Paris - 19601960
What is this Thing Called SoulCannonball AddlerleyWhat is this Thing Called Soul1960
Waltz for DebbieCannonball AdderleyKnow What I Mean?1961

Cannonball Adderley - Episode 3

Cannonball had a strong affinity for the blues and his soul jazz crossover hits were immensely popular. Not only was his music of the highest caliber, but it was also accessible to a very wide audience. He was an articulate and engaging musician who educated his listeners with witty commentary that illuminated the music. He was also a talent scout who introduced several prominent musicians to record producers including Wes Montgomery and Chuck Mangione, and collaborated with the young singer, Nancy Wilson. The open, affirmative personality he displayed on stage was reflected in his music. The recordings on this podcast are from the late 1950s through the mid-1960s and represent the best of his soul jazz recordings.
Bohemia After DarkCannonball AdderleyThe Quintet in San Francisco1959
This HereCannonball AdderleyThe Quintet in San Francisco1959
The Work SongCannonball AdderleyParis 19601960
The Jive SambaCannonball AdderleyThe Jazz Workshop Revisited1962
Mercy, Mercy, MercyCannonball AddlerleyMercy, Mercy, Mercy1966
Fiddler on the RoofCannonball AdderleyFiddler on the Roof1964

Cool Jazz

Brubeck QtetOne of least clearly defined jazz styles, cool jazz is really a combination of a number of different approaches to jazz that all emanate from bebop. The cool style was not so much a response to bebop, but a logical extension of it started by musicians who were involved in the bop movement. Bop performance was centered on improvisation and so was cool, but one of the most striking differences was the manner in which solos were framed within an arrangement that often featured changes in texture.

Cool Jazz - Episode 1

The musicians themselves did not differentiate as much as the critics and record company executives, who in their haste to sell records were constantly coming up with new names for styles within the jazz genre. There are no “hard and fast” rules about cool jazz---mostly a combination of approaches that differed from bebop. The alto saxophonist Lee Konitz was characterized as a cool style player, (though he lived in New York) but his style of playing was smoother than that of Charlie Parker---probably a result of studying with Lennie Tristano.
BoplicityMiles DavisBirth of the Cool1949
Lester Leaps InCount Basie with Lester Young1939
Clap Hands Here Comes CharlieCount Basie with Lester Young1939
BudoMiles DavisBirth of the Cool1949
IsraelMiles DavisBirth of the Cool1949
Donna LeeCharlie Parker1947
Donna LeeLee Konitz1947

Cool Jazz - Episode 2

The emergence of the west coast cool style began to emerge at roughly the same time as the Royal Roost (Birth of the Cool) sessions in New York between 1948 and 1949. Pianist and composer Dave Brubeck not only had a strong background in jazz, but was also well versed in European music (so was pianist John Lewis). He started his Octet in late 1946 or early 1947 and made one recording with the group in 1950. Brubeck looked to utilize European compositional devices with the Octet which was rather novel for the time. Claude Thornhill and Boyd Raeburn orchestras also played an integral role in this “Europeanization” of jazz in the mid to late 1940’s. Some lesser known groups are also featured on this podcast including the Dave Pell Octet and the Serge Chaloff Octet.
BudoMiles DavisBirth of the Cool1949
Fugue on a Bop ThemeDave BrubeckDave Brubeck Octet1950
The Way You Look TonightDave BrubeckDave Brubeck Octet1950
AnthropologyClaude Thornhill1947
PatSerge Chaloff Septet1949
ChickasawSerge Chaloff Octet1949
Mountain GreeneryDave Pell Octet1954

Cool Jazz - Episode 3

One of the most famous of the west coast cool jazz groups was the Gerry Mulligan Quartet formed in 1952. It featured the quintessential cool jazz trumpet player/vocalist, Chet Baker. Baker became the poster boy for cool jazz in the early 1950’s. His playing was modeled after Miles Davis and his seemingly laid back melodic approach connected with audiences. The group did not have a pianist, which made for an interesting change in texture. Also featured on this podcast is the Dave Brubeck Quartet from the 1950’s featuring the light airy sound of alto saxophonist Paul Desmond. Brubeck’s series of albums, Jazz Goes to College, were immensely popular and helped bring him to international acclaim. Brubeck’s 1959 album Time Out is probably his most famous recording and features two instantly recognizable compositions, “Take Five” and “Blue Rondo a la Turk.”
Line for LyonsChet Baker and Gerry MulliganGerry Mulligan Quartet1952
FreewayChet Baker and Gerry MulliganGerry Mulligan Quartet1952
Love NestChet BakerChet Baker and the Russ Freeman Quartet1956
MotelChet BakerSteve Allen Tonight Show1954
PerdidoDave BrubeckJazz at Oberlin1953
Take FiveDave BrubeckTime Out1959
Blue Rondo a la TurkDave BrubeckTime Out1959

Cool Jazz - Episode 4

Alto saxophonist Art Pepper started his playing career in the early 1940’s playing in big bands led by Stan Kenton and Benny Carter and spent most of his career on the west coast. A bebopper at heart, Pepper’s playing has been referred to as west coast cool due to geography more than anything. A fiery player, he influenced many alto players in the 1950’s. The Modern Jazz Quartet was one of the most unique groups in jazz. Difficult to characterize, the leader, John Lewis, drew inspiration from many sources. He often looked to European music as a model when considering form and texture. The members themselves came from the bop movement, but Lewis also had a hand in the Birth of the Cool sessions. The last musician to be included in this podcast is Satan Getz. (see the podcast series on Getz) He came up in the late swing era, played bebop, and also can be characterized as a quintessential cool player. He contradicts everything about categorizing an artist, but his beautiful sound and relaxed way of playing are instantly recognizable.
Pepper ReturnsArt PepperThe Return of Art Pepper1956
DjangoModern Jazz QuartetDjango1956
Woody n' YouModern Jazz QuartetFontessa1956
La Ronde SuiteModern Jazz QuartetDjango1956
Stella by StarlightStan GetzStan Getz Plays1952
Lover Come BackStan GetzStan Getz Plays1952

The Year Was 1959

Miles Davis1959 was possibly the most important year in the history of jazz. It was the year that Miles Davis released Kind of Blue, Ornette Coleman released the Shape of Jazz of Come, John Coltrane released Giant Steps, and peripherally Dave Brubeck released Time Out, and Charles Mingus released Mingus Ah Um. Without a doubt the releases by Davis, Coleman, and Coltrane would forever change the direction of jazz forever. Davis introduces modal jazz, Coltrane introduces one of the most complex hard bop compositions, Giant Steps, and Ornette Coleman introduces a new way to play with no preset harmony. In hindsight you could say that of the three approaches Ornette had the greatest impact and John Coltrane was its first major recipient.

So WhatMiles DavisKind of Blue1959
Giant StepsJohn ColtraneGiant Steps1959
Flamenco SketchesMiles DavisKind of Blue1959
CongenialityOrnette ColemanThe Shape of to Come1959
NaimaJohn ColtraneGiant Steps1959
Lonely WomanOrnette ColemanThe Shape of Jazz to Come1959